Thursday, September 25, 2008

List of ensemble formations in traditional Chinese music

This is a list of ensemble formations in traditional Chinese music:

''Luogu'' and drum ensembles

''Luogu'' are Chinese percussion ensembles, which are typically made up of several different types of drums and several different types of metal idiophones, usually including gongs and cymbals . Such ensembles sometimes play in juxtaposition with melodic ensembles. There are also ensembles that consist solely of drums.
*Chaozhou luogu - gong and drum music of Chaozhou
**Chaozhou da luogu - big gong and drum music of Chaozhou
**Chaozhou xiao luogu - small gong and drum music of Chaozhou
*Shifan luogu - ten sound variations of gongs and drums
*Sichuan naonian luogu - gong and drum music performed for the celebration of the Chinese New Year in Sichuan Province
*Sunan shifan luogu (苏南十番锣鼓, see shifan luogu
*Tonggu ensemble - bronze drum ensemble
*Zhedong luogu - gong and drum music of eastern Zhejiang Province

Loud wind and percussion ensembles

Ensembles comprising loud wind instruments and the percussion instruments of the ''luogu'' ensemble are usually referred to as either ''guchui'' or ''chuida'' ensembles. Such ensembles traditionally perform outdoors, often while marching, for weddings, funerals, or military purposes. They include the following:

*Guchui ensemble - drum and wind music
*Liaonan guchui - drum and wind music of southern Liaoning Province
*Longchui - casket winds; performed by ''suona'', ''dongxiao'', ''erxian'', ''sanxian'', large and small drums, gong, cymbals, and sometimes other instruments
*Shandong guchui - drum and wind music of Shandong Province
*Shanxi badatao - eight big pieces of Shanxi Province
*Sunan chuida - wind and percussion music of southern Jiangsu Province; also called ''Sunan shifangu'' or ''Shifangu''
*Xi'an guyue - wind and percussion ensemble music of Xi'an ; also called ''Shaanxi guyue''

Silk and bamboo ensembles

Ensembles made up primarily of strings, flutes, and small percussion instruments are usually referred to as ''sizhu'' ensembles. They include:
*Chaozhou xianyue - Chaozhou silk and bamboo ensemble
*Fuzhou shifan - ten sound variations of Fuzhou
*Hakka sixian - Hakka silk and bamboo ensemble
*Hebei chuige - Hebei wind songs, see Jizhong guanyue
*Hengchui ensemble - wind music
*Jiangnan sizhu - string and wind music from the region directly south of the Yangtze River, near Shanghai
*Jizhong chuige - wind songs of central Hebei
*Jizhong guanyue - wind music of central Hebei
*Nanguan - an instrumental genre originating in Fujian; also performed in Taiwan and Singapore; also called ''nanyin'' , ''nanyue'' , or ''nanqu''

Buddhist and Daoist ritual music

Once performed regularly at and temples throughout China, since 1949 such music has experienced a significant decline, and may now be found at only a few temples in China and Taiwan.
*Jing yinyue - literally "capital music"; performed at the Zhihua Si Temple, a Ming Dynasty-era Buddhist temple in Beijing. Instruments include '''', ''dizi'', ''sheng'', ''yunluo'', cymbals, and drum, and voice

Ancient Chinese orchestra

The ancient Chinese orchestra, which comprised up to several hundred or more traditional Chinese musical instruments of many types, existed from at least the Shang Dynasty and performed ''yayue'' music for court rituals and sacrifices, as well as for entertainment of the court.

Modern Chinese orchestra

The modern Chinese orchestra, comprising up to 100 or more traditional Chinese musical instruments, as well as often cellos and double basses, was developed in the early 20th century.

Non-Han ensembles

Many ensembles are found only among China's 55 . These include:
*Bayin - literally "eight sounds"; instrumental ensemble of the Zhuang people of Guangxi, which includes such instruments as the ''maguhu'', ''tuhu'', ''huluhu'', ''sanxian'', drums, and cymbals, as well as other instruments
*Lusheng ensemble - ensemble of ''lusheng'' mouth organs of various sizes performed by the Miao and Dong peoples of southern China

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